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<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<title>B.4. Coding Style</title>
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<link rel="start" href="index.html" title="Programmer's Reference Guide">
<link rel="up" href="coding-standard.html" title="Appendix B. Zend Framework Coding Standard for PHP">
<link rel="prev" href="coding-standard.naming-conventions.html" title="B.3. Naming Conventions">
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<link rel="chapter" href="introduction.html" title="Chapter 1. Introduction to Zend Framework">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.acl.html" title="Chapter 2. Zend_Acl">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.amf.html" title="Chapter 3. Zend_Amf">
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<link rel="chapter" href="zend.cache.html" title="Chapter 5. Zend_Cache">
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<link rel="chapter" href="zend.config.html" title="Chapter 7. Zend_Config">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.console.getopt.html" title="Chapter 8. Zend_Console_Getopt">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.controller.html" title="Chapter 9. Zend_Controller">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.currency.html" title="Chapter 10. Zend_Currency">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.date.html" title="Chapter 11. Zend_Date">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.db.html" title="Chapter 12. Zend_Db">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.debug.html" title="Chapter 13. Zend_Debug">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.dojo.html" title="Chapter 14. Zend_Dojo">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.dom.html" title="Chapter 15. Zend_Dom">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.exception.html" title="Chapter 16. Zend_Exception">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.feed.html" title="Chapter 17. Zend_Feed">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.file.html" title="Chapter 18. Zend_File">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.filter.html" title="Chapter 19. Zend_Filter">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.form.html" title="Chapter 20. Zend_Form">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.gdata.html" title="Chapter 21. Zend_Gdata">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.http.html" title="Chapter 22. Zend_Http">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.infocard.html" title="Chapter 23. Zend_InfoCard">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.json.html" title="Chapter 24. Zend_Json">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.layout.html" title="Chapter 25. Zend_Layout">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.ldap.html" title="Chapter 26. Zend_Ldap">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.loader.html" title="Chapter 27. Zend_Loader">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.locale.html" title="Chapter 28. Zend_Locale">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.log.html" title="Chapter 29. Zend_Log">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.mail.html" title="Chapter 30. Zend_Mail">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.measure.html" title="Chapter 31. Zend_Measure">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.memory.html" title="Chapter 32. Zend_Memory">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.mime.html" title="Chapter 33. Zend_Mime">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.openid.html" title="Chapter 34. Zend_OpenId">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.paginator.html" title="Chapter 35. Zend_Paginator">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.pdf.html" title="Chapter 36. Zend_Pdf">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.registry.html" title="Chapter 37. Zend_Registry">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.rest.html" title="Chapter 38. Zend_Rest">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.search.lucene.html" title="Chapter 39. Zend_Search_Lucene">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.server.html" title="Chapter 40. Zend_Server">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.service.html" title="Chapter 41. Zend_Service">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.session.html" title="Chapter 42. Zend_Session">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.soap.html" title="Chapter 43. Zend_Soap">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.test.html" title="Chapter 44. Zend_Test">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.text.html" title="Chapter 45. Zend_Text">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.timesync.html" title="Chapter 46. Zend_TimeSync">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.translate.html" title="Chapter 47. Zend_Translate">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.uri.html" title="Chapter 48. Zend_Uri">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.validate.html" title="Chapter 49. Zend_Validate">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.version.html" title="Chapter 50. Zend_Version">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.view.html" title="Chapter 51. Zend_View">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.wildfire.html" title="Chapter 52. Zend_Wildfire">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.xmlrpc.html" title="Chapter 53. Zend_XmlRpc">
<link rel="appendix" href="requirements.html" title="Appendix A. Zend Framework Requirements">
<link rel="appendix" href="coding-standard.html" title="Appendix B. Zend Framework Coding Standard for PHP">
<link rel="appendix" href="copyrights.html" title="Appendix C. Copyright Information">
<link rel="index" href="the.index.html" title="Index">
<link rel="subsection" href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.php-code-demarcation" title="B.4.1. PHP Code Demarcation">
<link rel="subsection" href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.strings" title="B.4.2. Strings">
<link rel="subsection" href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.arrays" title="B.4.3. Arrays">
<link rel="subsection" href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.classes" title="B.4.4. Classes">
<link rel="subsection" href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.functions-and-methods" title="B.4.5. Functions and Methods">
<link rel="subsection" href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.control-statements" title="B.4.6. Control Statements">
<link rel="subsection" href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standards.inline-documentation" title="B.4.7. Inline Documentation">
</head>
<body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF">
<div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header">
<tr><th colspan="3" align="center">B.4. Coding Style</th></tr>
<tr>
<td width="20%" align="left">
<a accesskey="p" href="coding-standard.naming-conventions.html">Prev</a> </td>
<th width="60%" align="center">Appendix B. Zend Framework Coding Standard for PHP</th>
<td width="20%" align="right"> <a accesskey="n" href="copyrights.html">Next</a>
</td>
</tr>
</table></div>
<div class="sect1" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style"></a>B.4. Coding Style</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.php-code-demarcation"></a>B.4.1. PHP Code Demarcation</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
PHP code must always be delimited by the full-form, standard PHP tags:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
&lt;?php
?&gt;
</pre>
<p>
</p>
<p>
Short tags are never allowed. For files containing only PHP code, the
closing tag must always be omitted (See <a href="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.html#coding-standard.php-file-formatting.general" title="B.2.1. General">Section B.2.1, “General”</a>).
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.strings"></a>B.4.2. Strings</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.strings.literals"></a>B.4.2.1. String Literals</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
When a string is literal (contains no variable substitutions), the apostrophe or
"single quote" should always be used to demarcate the string:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
$a = 'Example String';
</pre>
<p>
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.strings.literals-containing-apostrophes"></a>B.4.2.2. String Literals Containing Apostrophes</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
When a literal string itself contains apostrophes, it is permitted to demarcate
the string with quotation marks or "double quotes". This is especially useful
for SQL statements:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
$sql = "SELECT `id`, `name` from `people` WHERE `name`='Fred' OR `name`='Susan'";
</pre>
<p>
This syntax is preferred over escaping apostrophes as it is much easier to read.
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.strings.variable-substitution"></a>B.4.2.3. Variable Substitution</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
Variable substitution is permitted using either of these forms:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
$greeting = "Hello $name, welcome back!";
$greeting = "Hello {$name}, welcome back!";
</pre>
<p>
</p>
<p>
For consistency, this form is not permitted:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
$greeting = "Hello ${name}, welcome back!";
</pre>
<p>
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.strings.string-concatenation"></a>B.4.2.4. String Concatenation</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
Strings must be concatenated using the "." operator. A space must always
be added before and after the "." operator to improve readability:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
$company = 'Zend' . ' ' . 'Technologies';
</pre>
<p>
</p>
<p>
When concatenating strings with the "." operator, it is encouraged to
break the statement into multiple lines to improve readability. In these
cases, each successive line should be padded with whitespace such that the
"."; operator is aligned under the "=" operator:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
$sql = "SELECT `id`, `name` FROM `people` "
. "WHERE `name` = 'Susan' "
. "ORDER BY `name` ASC ";
</pre>
<p>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.arrays"></a>B.4.3. Arrays</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.arrays.numerically-indexed"></a>B.4.3.1. Numerically Indexed Arrays</h4></div></div></div>
<p>Negative numbers are not permitted as indices.</p>
<p>
An indexed array may start with any non-negative number, however
all base indices besides 0 are discouraged.
</p>
<p>
When declaring indexed arrays with the <code class="code">array</code> function, a trailing space must be
added after each comma delimiter to improve readability:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
$sampleArray = array(1, 2, 3, 'Zend', 'Studio');
</pre>
<p>
</p>
<p>
It is permitted to declare multiline indexed arrays using the "array" construct.
In this case, each successive line must be padded with spaces such that beginning of
each line is aligned:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
$sampleArray = array(1, 2, 3, 'Zend', 'Studio',
$a, $b, $c,
56.44, $d, 500);
</pre>
<p>
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.arrays.associative"></a>B.4.3.2. Associative Arrays</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
When declaring associative arrays with the <code class="code">array</code> construct, breaking the statement into multiple lines
is encouraged. In this case, each successive line must be padded with whitespace such that both the keys and the values are aligned:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
$sampleArray = array('firstKey' =&gt; 'firstValue',
'secondKey' =&gt; 'secondValue');
</pre>
<p>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.classes"></a>B.4.4. Classes</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.classes.declaration"></a>B.4.4.1. Class Declaration</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
Classes must be named according to Zend Framework's naming conventions.
</p>
<p>
The brace should always be written on the line underneath the class name (the "one true brace" form).
</p>
<p>
Every class must have a documentation block that conforms to the PHPDocumentor standard.
</p>
<p>
All code in a class must be indented with four spaces.
</p>
<p>
Only one class is permitted in each PHP file.
</p>
<p>
Placing additional code in class files is permitted but discouraged.
In such files, two blank lines must separate the class from any additional PHP code in the class file.
</p>
<p>
The following is an example of an acceptable class declaration:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class SampleClass
{
// all contents of class
// must be indented four spaces
}
</pre>
<p>
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.classes.member-variables"></a>B.4.4.2. Class Member Variables</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
Member variables must be named according to Zend Framework's variable naming conventions.
</p>
<p>
Any variables declared in a class must be listed at the top of the class, above the
declaration of any methods.
</p>
<p>
The <code class="code">var</code> constuct is not permitted. Member variables always declare
their visibility by using one of the <code class="code">private</code>, <code class="code">protected</code>,
or <code class="code">public</code> modifiers. Giving access to member variables directly by declaring them
as public is permitted but discouraged in favor of accessor methods (set/get).
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.functions-and-methods"></a>B.4.5. Functions and Methods</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.functions-and-methods.declaration"></a>B.4.5.1. Function and Method Declaration</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
Functions must be named according to the Zend Framework function naming conventions.
</p>
<p>
Methods inside classes must always declare their visibility by using
one of the <code class="code">private</code>, <code class="code">protected</code>,
or <code class="code">public</code> modifiers.
</p>
<p>
As with classes, the brace should always be written on the line underneath the
function name (the "one true brace" form).
Space between the function name and the opening parenthesis for the arguments is not permitted.
</p>
<p>
Functions in the global scope are strongly discouraged.
</p>
<p>
The following is an example of an acceptable function declaration in a class:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class Foo
{
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
public function bar()
{
// all contents of function
// must be indented four spaces
}
}
</pre>
<p>
</p>
<p>
<span class="emphasis"><em>NOTE:</em></span> Pass-by-reference is the only parameter passing mechanism permitted in a method declaration.
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class Foo
{
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
public function bar(&amp;$baz)
{}
}
</pre>
<p>
</p>
<p>
Call-time pass-by-reference is strictly prohibited.
</p>
<p>
The return value must not be enclosed in parentheses. This can hinder readability, in addtional to breaking code
if a method is later changed to return by reference.
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class Foo
{
/**
* WRONG
*/
public function bar()
{
return($this-&gt;bar);
}
/**
* RIGHT
*/
public function bar()
{
return $this-&gt;bar;
}
}
</pre>
<p>
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.functions-and-methods.usage"></a>B.4.5.2. Function and Method Usage</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
Function arguments should be separated by a single trailing space after the comma delimiter.
The following is an example of an acceptable invocation of a function that takes three arguments:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
threeArguments(1, 2, 3);
</pre>
<p>
</p>
<p>
Call-time pass-by-reference is strictly prohibited. See the function declarations section
for the proper way to pass function arguments by-reference.
</p>
<p>
In passing arrays as arguments to a function, the function call may include the
"array" hint and may be split into multiple lines to improve readability. In
such cases, the normal guidelines for writing arrays still apply:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
threeArguments(array(1, 2, 3), 2, 3);
threeArguments(array(1, 2, 3, 'Zend', 'Studio',
$a, $b, $c,
56.44, $d, 500), 2, 3);
</pre>
<p>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.control-statements"></a>B.4.6. Control Statements</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.coding-style.control-statements.if-else-elseif"></a>B.4.6.1. If/Else/Elseif</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
Control statements based on the <code class="code">if</code> and <code class="code">elseif</code>
constructs must have a single space before the opening parenthesis of the conditional
and a single space after the closing parenthesis.
</p>
<p>
Within the conditional statements between the parentheses, operators must be separated
by spaces for readability. Inner parentheses are encouraged to improve logical grouping
for larger conditional expressions.
</p>
<p>
The opening brace is written on the same line as the conditional statement. The closing
brace is always written on its own line. Any content within the braces must be
indented using four spaces.
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
if ($a != 2) {
$a = 2;
}
</pre>
<p>
</p>
<p>
For "if" statements that include "elseif" or "else", the formatting conventions are similar to the "if" construct.
The following examples demonstrate proper formatting for "if" statements with "else" and/or "elseif" constructs:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
if ($a != 2) {
$a = 2;
} else {
$a = 7;
}
if ($a != 2) {
$a = 2;
} elseif ($a == 3) {
$a = 4;
} else {
$a = 7;
}
</pre>
<p>
PHP allows statements to be written without braces in some circumstances.
This coding standard makes no differentiation- all "if", "elseif" or "else" statements
must use braces.
</p>
<p>
Use of the "elseif" construct is permitted but strongly discouraged in favor of the
"else if" combination.
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standards.coding-style.control-statements.switch"></a>B.4.6.2. Switch</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
Control statements written with the "switch" statement must have a single space before
the opening parenthesis of the conditional statement and after the closing parenthesis.
</p>
<p>
All content within the "switch" statement must be indented using four spaces. Content under
each "case" statement must be indented using an additional four spaces.
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
switch ($numPeople) {
case 1:
break;
case 2:
break;
default:
break;
}
</pre>
<p>
The construct <code class="code">default</code> should never be omitted from a <code class="code">switch</code> statement.
</p>
<p>
<span class="emphasis"><em>NOTE:</em></span> It is sometimes useful to write a <code class="code">case</code> statement which falls through
to the next case by not including a <code class="code">break</code> or <code class="code">return</code> within that case. To distinguish
these cases from bugs, any <code class="code">case</code> statement where <code class="code">break</code> or <code class="code">return</code> are
omitted should contain a comment indicating that the break was intentionally omitted.
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standards.inline-documentation"></a>B.4.7. Inline Documentation</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standards.inline-documentation.documentation-format"></a>B.4.7.1. Documentation Format</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
All documentation blocks ("docblocks") must be compatible with the phpDocumentor format.
Describing the phpDocumentor format is beyond the scope of this document.
For more information, visit: <a href="http://phpdoc.org/" target="_top">http://phpdoc.org/</a>
</p>
<p>
All class files must contain a "file-level" docblock at the top of each file and a "class-level" docblock
immediately above each class. Examples of such docblocks can be found below.
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="coding-standards.inline-documentation.files"></a>B.4.7.2. Files</h4></div></div></div>
<p>
Every file that contains PHP code must have a docblock at the top of the file that
contains these phpDocumentor tags at a minimum:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
/**
* Short description for file
*
* Long description for file (if any)...
*
* LICENSE: Some license information
*
* @copyright 2008 Zend Technologies
* @license http://framework.zend.com/license BSD License
* @version $Id:$
* @link http://framework.zend.com/package/PackageName
* @since File available since Release 1.5.0
*/
</pre>