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<link rel="chapter" href="zend.infocard.html" title="Chapter 23. Zend_InfoCard">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.json.html" title="Chapter 24. Zend_Json">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.layout.html" title="Chapter 25. Zend_Layout">
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<link rel="chapter" href="zend.locale.html" title="Chapter 28. Zend_Locale">
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<link rel="chapter" href="zend.paginator.html" title="Chapter 35. Zend_Paginator">
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<link rel="chapter" href="zend.session.html" title="Chapter 42. Zend_Session">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.soap.html" title="Chapter 43. Zend_Soap">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.test.html" title="Chapter 44. Zend_Test">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.text.html" title="Chapter 45. Zend_Text">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.timesync.html" title="Chapter 46. Zend_TimeSync">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.translate.html" title="Chapter 47. Zend_Translate">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.uri.html" title="Chapter 48. Zend_Uri">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.validate.html" title="Chapter 49. Zend_Validate">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.version.html" title="Chapter 50. Zend_Version">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.view.html" title="Chapter 51. Zend_View">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.wildfire.html" title="Chapter 52. Zend_Wildfire">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.xmlrpc.html" title="Chapter 53. Zend_XmlRpc">
<link rel="appendix" href="requirements.html" title="Appendix A. Zend Framework Requirements">
<link rel="appendix" href="coding-standard.html" title="Appendix B. Zend Framework Coding Standard for PHP">
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<link rel="index" href="the.index.html" title="Index">
<link rel="section" href="coding-standard.html#coding-standard.overview" title="B.1. Overview">
<link rel="section" href="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.html" title="B.2. PHP File Formatting">
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<div class="appendix" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard"></a>Appendix B. Zend Framework Coding Standard for PHP</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="coding-standard.html#coding-standard.overview">B.1. Overview</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.html#coding-standard.overview.scope">B.1.1. Scope</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.html#coding-standard.overview.goals">B.1.2. Goals</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.html">B.2. PHP File Formatting</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.html#coding-standard.php-file-formatting.general">B.2.1. General</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.html#coding-standard.php-file-formatting.indentation">B.2.2. Indentation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.html#coding-standard.php-file-formatting.max-line-length">B.2.3. Maximum Line Length</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.html#coding-standard.php-file-formatting.line-termination">B.2.4. Line Termination</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="coding-standard.naming-conventions.html">B.3. Naming Conventions</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.naming-conventions.html#coding-standard.naming-conventions.classes">B.3.1. Classes</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.naming-conventions.html#coding-standard.naming-conventions.filenames">B.3.2. Filenames</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.naming-conventions.html#coding-standard.naming-conventions.functions-and-methods">B.3.3. Functions and Methods</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.naming-conventions.html#coding-standard.naming-conventions.variables">B.3.4. Variables</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.naming-conventions.html#coding-standard.naming-conventions.constants">B.3.5. Constants</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html">B.4. Coding Style</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.php-code-demarcation">B.4.1. PHP Code Demarcation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.strings">B.4.2. Strings</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.strings.literals">B.4.2.1. String Literals</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.strings.literals-containing-apostrophes">B.4.2.2. String Literals Containing Apostrophes</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.strings.variable-substitution">B.4.2.3. Variable Substitution</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.strings.string-concatenation">B.4.2.4. String Concatenation</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.arrays">B.4.3. Arrays</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.arrays.numerically-indexed">B.4.3.1. Numerically Indexed Arrays</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.arrays.associative">B.4.3.2. Associative Arrays</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.classes">B.4.4. Classes</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.classes.declaration">B.4.4.1. Class Declaration</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.classes.member-variables">B.4.4.2. Class Member Variables</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.functions-and-methods">B.4.5. Functions and Methods</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.functions-and-methods.declaration">B.4.5.1. Function and Method Declaration</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.functions-and-methods.usage">B.4.5.2. Function and Method Usage</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.control-statements">B.4.6. Control Statements</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standard.coding-style.control-statements.if-else-elseif">B.4.6.1. If/Else/Elseif</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standards.coding-style.control-statements.switch">B.4.6.2. Switch</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standards.inline-documentation">B.4.7. Inline Documentation</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standards.inline-documentation.documentation-format">B.4.7.1. Documentation Format</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standards.inline-documentation.files">B.4.7.2. Files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standards.inline-documentation.classes">B.4.7.3. Classes</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="coding-standard.coding-style.html#coding-standards.inline-documentation.functions">B.4.7.4. Functions</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="sect1" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="coding-standard.overview"></a>B.1. Overview</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.overview.scope"></a>B.1.1. Scope</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
This document provides guidelines for code formatting and documentation to individuals
and teams contributing to Zend Framework. Many developers using Zend Framework have also
found these coding standards useful because their code's style remains consistent with all
Zend Framework code. It is also worth noting that it requires significant effort to fully
specify coding standards.
Note: Sometimes developers consider the establishment of a standard more important than what that
standard actually suggests at the most detailed level of design. The guidelines in the Zend Framework
coding standards capture practices that have worked well on the ZF project. You may modify these standards
or use them as is in accordance with the terms of our <a href="http://framework.zend.com/license" target="_top">license</a>
</p>
<p>
Topics covered in the ZF coding standards include:
</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul type="disc">
<li><p>PHP File Formatting</p></li>
<li><p>Naming Conventions</p></li>
<li><p>Coding Style</p></li>
<li><p>Inline Documentation</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.overview.goals"></a>B.1.2. Goals</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
Coding standards are important in any development project, but they are particularly important
when many developers are working on the same project. Coding standards
help ensure that the code is high quality, has fewer bugs, and can be easily maintained.
</p>
</div>
</div>
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<link rel="chapter" href="zend.dojo.html" title="Chapter 14. Zend_Dojo">
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<link rel="chapter" href="zend.feed.html" title="Chapter 17. Zend_Feed">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.file.html" title="Chapter 18. Zend_File">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.filter.html" title="Chapter 19. Zend_Filter">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.form.html" title="Chapter 20. Zend_Form">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.gdata.html" title="Chapter 21. Zend_Gdata">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.http.html" title="Chapter 22. Zend_Http">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.infocard.html" title="Chapter 23. Zend_InfoCard">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.json.html" title="Chapter 24. Zend_Json">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.layout.html" title="Chapter 25. Zend_Layout">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.ldap.html" title="Chapter 26. Zend_Ldap">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.loader.html" title="Chapter 27. Zend_Loader">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.locale.html" title="Chapter 28. Zend_Locale">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.log.html" title="Chapter 29. Zend_Log">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.mail.html" title="Chapter 30. Zend_Mail">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.measure.html" title="Chapter 31. Zend_Measure">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.memory.html" title="Chapter 32. Zend_Memory">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.mime.html" title="Chapter 33. Zend_Mime">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.openid.html" title="Chapter 34. Zend_OpenId">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.paginator.html" title="Chapter 35. Zend_Paginator">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.pdf.html" title="Chapter 36. Zend_Pdf">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.registry.html" title="Chapter 37. Zend_Registry">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.rest.html" title="Chapter 38. Zend_Rest">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.search.lucene.html" title="Chapter 39. Zend_Search_Lucene">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.server.html" title="Chapter 40. Zend_Server">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.service.html" title="Chapter 41. Zend_Service">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.session.html" title="Chapter 42. Zend_Session">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.soap.html" title="Chapter 43. Zend_Soap">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.test.html" title="Chapter 44. Zend_Test">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.text.html" title="Chapter 45. Zend_Text">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.timesync.html" title="Chapter 46. Zend_TimeSync">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.translate.html" title="Chapter 47. Zend_Translate">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.uri.html" title="Chapter 48. Zend_Uri">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.validate.html" title="Chapter 49. Zend_Validate">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.version.html" title="Chapter 50. Zend_Version">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.view.html" title="Chapter 51. Zend_View">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.wildfire.html" title="Chapter 52. Zend_Wildfire">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.xmlrpc.html" title="Chapter 53. Zend_XmlRpc">
<link rel="appendix" href="requirements.html" title="Appendix A. Zend Framework Requirements">
<link rel="appendix" href="coding-standard.html" title="Appendix B. Zend Framework Coding Standard for PHP">
<link rel="appendix" href="copyrights.html" title="Appendix C. Copyright Information">
<link rel="index" href="the.index.html" title="Index">
<link rel="subsection" href="coding-standard.naming-conventions.html#coding-standard.naming-conventions.classes" title="B.3.1. Classes">
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<div class="sect1" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="coding-standard.naming-conventions"></a>B.3. Naming Conventions</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.naming-conventions.classes"></a>B.3.1. Classes</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
Zend Framework standardizes on a class naming convention whereby the names
of the classes directly map to the directories in which they are stored.
The root level directory of the ZF standard library is the "Zend/" directory, whereas
the root level directory of the ZF extras library is the "ZendX/" directory. All
Zend Framework classes are stored hierarchially under these root directories..
</p>
<p>
Class names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Numbers are permitted
in class names but are discouraged in most cases. Underscores are only permitted in place
of the path separator; the filename "Zend/Db/Table.php" must map to the
class name "Zend_Db_Table".
</p>
<p>
If a class name is comprised of more than one word, the first letter of each new
word must be capitalized. Successive capitalized letters are not allowed, e.g.
a class "Zend_PDF" is not allowed while "Zend_Pdf" is acceptable.
</p>
<p>
These conventions define a pseudo-namespace mechanism for Zend Framework. Zend Framework
will adopt the PHP namespace feature when it becomes available and is feasible for our developers to use in their applications.
</p>
<p>
See the class names in the standard and extras libraries for examples of this classname convention.
<span class="emphasis"><em>IMPORTANT:</em></span> Code that must be deployed alongside ZF libraries but is not
part of the standard or extras libraries (e.g. application code or libraries that are not distributed by Zend)
must never start with "Zend_" or "ZendX_".
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.naming-conventions.filenames"></a>B.3.2. Filenames</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
For all other files, only alphanumeric characters, underscores, and the dash
character ("-") are permitted. Spaces are strictly prohibited.
</p>
<p>
Any file that contains PHP code should end with the extension ".php", with the notable exception of view scripts. The following
examples show acceptable filenames for Zend Framework classes.:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
Zend/Db.php
Zend/Controller/Front.php
Zend/View/Helper/FormRadio.php
</pre>
<p>
File names must map to class names as described above.
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.naming-conventions.functions-and-methods"></a>B.3.3. Functions and Methods</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
Function names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Underscores are not permitted.
Numbers are permitted in function names but are discouraged in most cases.
</p>
<p>
Function names must always start with a lowercase letter. When a function name consists
of more than one word, the first letter of each new word must be capitalized. This is
commonly called "camelCase" formatting.
</p>
<p>
Verbosity is generally encouraged. Function names should be as verbose as is practical to fully describe their purpose and behavior.
</p>
<p>
These are examples of acceptable names for functions:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
filterInput()
getElementById()
widgetFactory()
</pre>
<p>
</p>
<p>
For object-oriented programming, accessors for instance or static variables should always be prefixed with
"get" or "set". In implementing design patterns, such as the singleton or factory
patterns, the name of the method should contain the pattern name where practical to more thoroughly describe behavior.
</p>
<p>
For methods on objects that are declared with the "private" or "protected" modified,
the first character of the variable name must be an underscore. This is the only
acceptable application of an underscore in a method name. Methods declared "public"
should never contain an underscore.
</p>
<p>
Functions in the global scope (a.k.a "floating functions") are permitted but discouraged in most cases.
Consider wrapping these functions in a static class.
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.naming-conventions.variables"></a>B.3.4. Variables</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
Variable names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Underscores are not permitted.
Numbers are permitted in variable names but are discouraged in most cases.
</p>
<p>
For instance variables that are declared with the "private" or "protected" modifier,
the first character of the variable name must be a single underscore. This is the only
acceptable application of an underscore in a variable name. Member variables declared "public"
should never start with an underscore.
</p>
<p>
As with function names (see section 3.3) variable names must always start with a
lowercase letter and follow the "camelCaps" capitalization convention.
</p>
<p>
Verbosity is generally encouraged. Variables should always be as verbose as practical to describe the data that the developer
intends to store in them. Terse variable names such as "$i" and "$n" are discouraged for all but the smallest loop contexts.
If a loop contains more than 20 lines of code, the index variables should have more descriptive names.
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.naming-conventions.constants"></a>B.3.5. Constants</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
Constants may contain both alphanumeric characters and underscores. Numbers are permitted
in constant names.
</p>
<p>
All letters used in a constant name must be capitalized.
</p>
<p>
Words in constant names must be separated by underscore characters. For
example, <code class="code">EMBED_SUPPRESS_EMBED_EXCEPTION</code> is permitted but
<code class="code">EMBED_SUPPRESSEMBEDEXCEPTION</code> is not.
</p>
<p>
Constants must be defined as class members with the "const" modifier. Defining constants
in the global scope with the "define" function is permitted but strongly discouraged.
</p>
</div>
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<link rel="chapter" href="zend.filter.html" title="Chapter 19. Zend_Filter">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.form.html" title="Chapter 20. Zend_Form">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.gdata.html" title="Chapter 21. Zend_Gdata">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.http.html" title="Chapter 22. Zend_Http">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.infocard.html" title="Chapter 23. Zend_InfoCard">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.json.html" title="Chapter 24. Zend_Json">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.layout.html" title="Chapter 25. Zend_Layout">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.ldap.html" title="Chapter 26. Zend_Ldap">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.loader.html" title="Chapter 27. Zend_Loader">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.locale.html" title="Chapter 28. Zend_Locale">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.log.html" title="Chapter 29. Zend_Log">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.mail.html" title="Chapter 30. Zend_Mail">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.measure.html" title="Chapter 31. Zend_Measure">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.memory.html" title="Chapter 32. Zend_Memory">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.mime.html" title="Chapter 33. Zend_Mime">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.openid.html" title="Chapter 34. Zend_OpenId">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.paginator.html" title="Chapter 35. Zend_Paginator">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.pdf.html" title="Chapter 36. Zend_Pdf">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.registry.html" title="Chapter 37. Zend_Registry">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.rest.html" title="Chapter 38. Zend_Rest">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.search.lucene.html" title="Chapter 39. Zend_Search_Lucene">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.server.html" title="Chapter 40. Zend_Server">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.service.html" title="Chapter 41. Zend_Service">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.session.html" title="Chapter 42. Zend_Session">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.soap.html" title="Chapter 43. Zend_Soap">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.test.html" title="Chapter 44. Zend_Test">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.text.html" title="Chapter 45. Zend_Text">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.timesync.html" title="Chapter 46. Zend_TimeSync">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.translate.html" title="Chapter 47. Zend_Translate">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.uri.html" title="Chapter 48. Zend_Uri">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.validate.html" title="Chapter 49. Zend_Validate">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.version.html" title="Chapter 50. Zend_Version">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.view.html" title="Chapter 51. Zend_View">
<link rel="chapter" href="zend.wildfire.html" title="Chapter 52. Zend_Wildfire">
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<link rel="appendix" href="coding-standard.html" title="Appendix B. Zend Framework Coding Standard for PHP">
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<div class="sect1" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="coding-standard.php-file-formatting"></a>B.2. PHP File Formatting</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" lang="en">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="coding-standard.php-file-formatting.general"></a>B.2.1. General</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
For files that contain only PHP code, the closing tag ("?&gt;") is never permitted. It is
not required by PHP, and omitting it prevents the accidental injection of trailing whitespace into the response.
</p>
<p>
<span class="emphasis"><em>IMPORTANT:</em></span> Inclusion of arbitrary binary data as permitted by <code class="code">__HALT_COMPILER()</code>
is prohibited from PHP files in the Zend Framework project or files derived from them. Use of
this feature is only permitted for some installation scripts.
</p>
</